The concept of perceptions–
Perception may be simply defined as the process by which something is regarded, understood or interpreted. It is the sensory experience of everything around us. It is the process of interacting with our surroundings. It involves both bottoming-up and top-down processes. Let us understand this in a more elaborated manner. Perception is a multi-stage process, these stages are:
Attention and Selection – We are blessed with an infinite amount of things in the world around us that we can interact with, respond to but we are simply not capable of attending to all those stimuli at once. So, our brain (usually subconsciously, but sometimes deliberately) decides to pay attention to specific stimuli(Delfina & Ana, 2019).This is the first step of this stage. The specific stimulus has caught our attention. Our mind is now focusing and advancing towards it. The second step is to make a selection of the specific point of attraction while masking others near or surrounding it. This stage of paying attention and making the selection of a specific stimulusmay vary with various factors. Depending upon the environment we are in, depending upon individual variations such as the mood we are in, what thoughts are we processing, etc. All these factors lead to a natural selection of the stimuli we attend to. This process is the first step in the process of Perception(Aldrich, Dietz, Clark, & Hamilton, 2014).
Stimulus, Organisation, and Recognition–This involves the organization of the gathered stimulus particulars and facts into a relevant, significant and consequential arrangement. Once we choose to respond to a stimulus, which could be a conscious or sub-conscious selection, this sets off a series of reactions and responses in our brain. It could be triggered by sensory receptors like touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. Then the gathered information by these receptors is transferred to the brain. This is where the organization of the gathered information is executed.This process leads to the recognition of the response to the stimulus attended by the brain. This process is the second step in the process of Perception(Bloom, Genakos, Sadun, & Reenen, 2012).
Interpretation and Inference –After we have attended to a stimulus, and our brain has already performed the two steps described earlier, then comes the final stage of interpretation and inference of information. In this step, our brain uses the information to understand and interpret it in a sensible and meaningful manner. It usually involves the systematic categorization of data to interact and respond to stimuli intelligently(Boon, Boselie, & Paauwe, 2011).
The concept of attitudes-
Attitude can be defined as a predefined and predetermined manner of handling a situation or responding to a certain person, object, or idea. This response may be positive, negative or neutral to the condition. It influences the individual’s choice of action towards a stimulus. The three basic components of attitude will further help us in understanding this concept:
- Cognitive components – These components are opinions, judgements, and values a person would associate with a stimulus. It is the personal opinion of the person regarding a specific object or situation. These include generalities and stereotypes a person has cultivated(Kehoe & Wright, 2013).
- Affective components – These are the psychological and emotional feelings of an assertiveness.This is inrelation to impact on another person.Theseemotions generally include likes and dislikes of a person towards a person, object or situation.
- Behavioural components– It involves a person’s bias, tendency, and propensity to act and respond in a certain manner to a person, object or situation. This indicates how a person acts consistently and characteristically.
The cognitive component is based on the information or knowledge, whereas the affective component is based on the feelings. The behavioural component reflects how attitude affects the way we act or behave. It helps understand their complexity and the potential relationship between attitudes and behaviour(Hartog, Boon, Verburg, & Croon, 2013).
With the basic components clear, let us take a look at the dimensions of attitude:
- Valence – Also known as hedonic tone, defines the affecting quality referring to the intrinsic attractiveness or averseness of a stimulus. As defined here, valence is of two types; positive and negative. Positive valence denotes attractiveness and negative valence denotes averseness.
- Centrality – it can be defined as the extent to which a “mentality object is contemplated, reflected in the measure of time dedicated to this thoroughly considering an all-inclusive period”.
- Interrelatedness – It defines the degree to which a disposition is identified with an individual’s different perspectives”.
- Firmness– It defines the struggle to change in an attitude.
- · Specificity – “The degree to which the disposition is indicated to some property of the mentality object”.
- Salience – It is the degree of conscious awareness of holding the attitude(Dewettinck & Vroonen, 2017).
Functions of attitude –
- The adjustment function – It helps the person in adjusting and adapting to his/her surroundings. A person can be easily adaptable or unadaptable.
- Ego-defensive function–The ability to fighting or defend his/her self-image.
- Value-expressive function – The helps an individual to gain satisfaction by expressing the attitude which relects his/her value.
- Knowledge function – It abalises an individual mentally for arranging andstructuring their private world so that it becomes more understandable and sensible(Gannon, Roper, & Doherty, 2015).
The concept of motivation-
Motivation can be defined as the driving force behind the achievement of a goal. It describes the needs or wants that direct behaviour toward a goal. It is the urge to act or behave in a certain manner that will satisfy certain conditions and help to achieve certain objectives.Psychologists define motivation as the process by which activities are started, directed, and sustained so that certain needs are met. Needs can be psychological (for example, needing validation) or physical (for example, needing food). The idea is that motivation is what guides us to accomplish a goal(Gilbert, 2011).
The components of motivation are:
- Direction – The guideiens to perform in a certen manner.
- Intensity – It is the ability or efforts that are applied inorder to perform certen function or to achieve cetainobjectuves.
- Persistence – It indicates a person’s determination to continue the pursuit of a goal despite the obstacles and hurdles encountered(Ibănescu, 2015).
The process of motivation:
- Identification of unsatisfied needs and wants – The first step is to identify such stimuli that create a sense of dissatisfaction.
- Tension – Unsatisfied desires lead to tension among individuals. It may be of physical, psychological or sociological.
- Actions to satisfy needs or wants – Next is to finalize the mode or medium of action to satisfy the needs or wants.
- The accomplishment of goals – Actions were taken to satisfy the need lead to the fulfilment of goals.
- Review/Feedback – The final step is to review the improvement and provide feedback on the success rate of motivation(Klaas, Semadeni, Klimchak, & Ward, 2012).
Motivation is of two types; Intrinsic and Extrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation – It entails activity that is undertaken for its own sake.
Extrinsic motivation – It involves activity that is undertaken for some purpose other than its own sake.
The concept of team-work:
Team-work can be characterized as the capacity of the considerable number of individuals from cooperation together, convey adequately, envision and fulfill each other’s needs, and move certainty, bringing about an organized aggregate activity, ultimately leading to the achievement of the common goal(Lo, Macky, & Pio, 2015). It is the foundation of any group. Each individual from a group needs to perform and contribute in his most ideal manner to accomplish a typical predefined objective. Singular exhibitions don’t include in a group and it is the aggregate execution of the group laborers which matters the most. One can’t work alone in any association and hence groups are shaped where people cooperate for a typical target.Team working together is important for the success of an organization(Sengupta, Venkatesh, & Sinha, 2013).
Reasons why Team-work is important:
- Creativity – Team-work generatesimagination.In a team where each member isworkingon equalgrounds, they are expected to be more expressive and creativewith new ideas. This may lead to the overall success of the team(Cohen, 2015).
- Member happiness – Team-work leads to the happiness of the employees. And happy employees generally bring more success than sad and dejected employees. A team can create a healthy and inviting environment for the members to look forward to everyday.
- Teamwork leads to learning –Everyone in the team has their own abilities and skills. When all the skills and efforts are put together as a unit, the members learn and share these skills from each other. This leads to the overall improvement of the team(Ulrich, Younger, Brockbank, & Ulrich, 2013).
- Efficiency – Teamwork leads to a fair and suitable distribution of workload which results in the efficient performance of the team.
- Professional relationships – Team-work can be successful in building incredible work connections. A group that has an incredible connection level has shared comprehension and trust with one another that will consistently demonstrate useful for the association. Group exercises open the roads to success and relationship working for the group.
- Accountability – Team-work induces accountability. Members of the team can supervise and review each other’s progress and make necessary changes(Long, Wan Ismail, & Amin, 2013).
- Sense of accomplishment – While working as a team on a common goal, team members encourage and support one another. When a team works on a project as one unit, the sense of accomplishment also becomes greater on finishing the task. It brings a sense of confidence and fulfilment to the entire team(Sharma, 2020).
Case of Mr Simon:
- Key issues – The key issues raised in the case are:
Mr Simon is treated unfairly by the organization. His loyalty of 12 years is not being respected. His rejection for promotion for the third time based on lack of formal qualifications displays a lack of trust in the work experience of an employee and a bias towards formal qualifications. This has lead to the formation of negative perception in Mr Simon towards his organization. He is also observed discussing his departure from the organization with his colleague for once and for all(Sheehan, De-Cieri, Greenwood, & Van-BurenIII, 2014). This attitude shows us the morale of the employee. He is completely void of motivation to work for this organization due to his years of hard work not being respected. The lack of job satisfaction has forced Mr Simon to end his term with the organization after serving them for over a decade. This will ultimately cost the organization an industrious, reliable, experienced and loyal employee.
- The major reason behind Mr Simon’s job dissatisfaction is his denial of promotion. Promotion is one of the most effective methods of motivating an employee. It gives a sense of personal satisfaction and accomplishment to the employees. Mr Simon is being robbed of this feeling, which is creating a wave of demotivation(Brockbank, Ulrich, Younger, & Ulrich, 2012).
- The organization is denying the promotion of Mr Simon based on a lack of formal qualifications. This highlights a major issue. The organization is preferring an inexperienced employee with more formal qualifications than Mr Simon which may not be the most fruitful decision. Mr Simon has been working for them for over a decade, which shows that he possesses the minimum qualifications for the job, so preferring a less experienced candidate for higher formal qualifications is a sign of poor man-management(Zhou, Wang, & Liu, 2013).
- The final addressing is regarding the repercussions of this decision. Mr Simon has been working for 12 years for the organization, this shows his loyalty as well as the job satisfaction level. If he is not promoted and ends up terminating his term, it is a loss for the organization as well as Mr Simon. He will lose a job that he loved, and the organization will lose a hard-working and loyal employee(TOZLU & KURTİPEK, 2015).
- The organization should follow a system of fair and reasonable promotions. A clear promotion apparatus should be announced with minimum formal qualifications and experience highlighted. If an employee meets the minimum criteria, he should be given a fair chance at promotion and other benefits.
- Theories of motivation should be studied and deployed in the organization to extract the maximum out of their employees. For example;
- “Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs”:
Abraham Maslow created this theory which is the most popular theory of motivation in the modern world. He explains inspiration through the fulfillment of requirements organized in a various leveled request.Fulfilled requirements don’t inspire however unsatisfied necessities do.These are-
Physiological needs – These are basic biological “requirements for human survival such as water, air, food, clothing,shelter,etc”(Markoulli, Lee, Byington, & Felps, 2017).
Safety and Security – Healthcare, pension, insurances, job security, career progress, etc.
Social and belongingness – The third level of human needs is social and feelings of belongingness. Healthy relationships with family, friends, colleagues instils a sense of belongingness. Organizations should promote healthy social relationships among employees.
Self-esteem – Need for a sense of dignity, respect, achievement, mastery, independence, status, prestige, etc. come under this. The organization should cultivate a sense of self-esteem among the employees.
Self-actualization – “Realization of personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and experience”.The organization should provide opportunities for the self-actualization of the staffs(García-Lillo, Úbeda-García, & Marco-Lajara, 2012).
Alderfer’s ERG theory:
ERG theory by Alderfer expands on the theory of motivation by Maslow, it further elaborates on the category of needs. “He observes that when lower needs are satisfied, they occupy less of our attention, but the higher needs tend to become more important, the more we pursue them”.It shares the following categories with Maslow’s theory-
- Existence – Includes basic biological needs for human survival such as “water, air, food, sleep, clothes, shelter, etc”.
- Relatedness – Includes needs to connect with others and have a sense of belongingness.
- Growth – Include needs classified under the self-esteem category of Maslow’s theory(Pindek, Kessler, & Spector, 2017).
- “Herzberg’s Two-factor theory”:
This philosophies is divided into categories-
- Hygiene factors – “These factors include pay, employer stability, working conditions, nature of supervision, organization strategies and organization, relational relations”.
- Motivators – Feeling of accomplishment, acknowledgment, obligation, nature of work, self-improvement and advancement.
- “McClelland’s achievement motivation theory”:
McCellandadopted an alternate strategy to needs and expressed that necessities are created and learned. He centered his exploration away from fulfillment. In this way the conduct related with fulfilling the necessities in grown-up life is something similar to a socially prompted character attribute. He additionally says that just a single prevailing thought process can be available at one time.These needs are
- The requirement for accomplishment
- The requirement for power
- The requirement for connection(Brandl & Pohler, 2010)
The organization can implement these theories to create an effective method of motivating their employees. They should also focus on the thorough implementation of these models from individuals to collective levels.
Mr Simon is an asset to his organization. The organization should go through the aforementioned concepts and theories to establish a fair and efficient model of employee benefits and promotions. This will help in motivating the employees and developing a healthy relationship with them over the long-term future. Happy and motivated employees are instrumental in the success of an organization. The policy of the company made the employee unhappy and unsatisfied despite giving his time he considers leaving the company. His this action and situation would also affect the perception of other employees. The policy of promotion on the bases of qualification and not on the bases of experience has been a major cause of social loafing.
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