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SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION

Introduction – SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION

In the twenty-first century, the integration of sustainability with business models is a running trend and most of the multinational organisations are exploiting this idea in order to get a superior position in the competitive market. It has been evaluated that the sustainable approach of tread has been imparting multidimensional beneficial impact, not only over the growth of the business but also the growth of the community and the planet as well. The purpose of this study is to identify the utilisation of sustainable approach in the context of food production in Australia. George Weston Food (GWF) has been selected to conduct this study to explore the practice of SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION.

The thesis statement of this study is that GWF is practising Sustainable food production approach and has created a positive impact over the economic, social and environmental aspects of the operating market and the company.

SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION

Discussion

Background of the study and company

In the previous section, it has already been mentioned that sustainability is one of such ideas which provides multilayered beneficial influence over the growth of trade and commerce and also in the community and environmental level. Further, as per the idea of Crist, Mora & Engelman (2017), sustainability always creates scope for the economic development of a business unit. Likewise, this idea is quite applicable for the trade model of GWF as they have successfully integrated sustainable ideas to run their commercial activity at the cross-border level. As per the official report, GWF has expanded its business up to 46 nations around the globe, among which the trade in Australia and the UK is notable (gwf.com, 2019). This information is quite pertinent in delineating the scoped scenario of the organisation. Moreover, the organisation has got its popularity by being under the ownership of British Food PLC.

The support of business associates is another important factor which has promoted GWF in the implementation of its sustainable ideas. As per the viewpoint of Rahimifard et al. (2017), the support of the stakeholders like investors, employees and suppliers is highly crucial to run a sustainable business. As per the official reports, GWF has a strong and supportive workforce at the international level with the strength of 1, 00,000 individuals (gwf.com, 2019). Hence, from this point, it can be analysed that the organisation has got the support of its HR, one of the major stakeholders to implement sustainability. Moreover, the supportive and reliable suppliers of the company have also helped the firm to proceed to the path of success.

Sustainability- Idea definition and application

The concept and discussion regarding sustainability is needed to be stated as it is the backbone of this study. As per the statement of Vieira et al. (2018), the idea of the development of community, trade and economy of a specific location with the conservation of the natural resources is expressed by the term Sustainability. Hence, from this point, it can be analysed that minimal wastage of natural resources and the minimisation of burden over the biosphere in the context of the development of the business sector is the major intention of Sustainable growth. As per Lawrence et al. (2019), sustainable growth in the industrial sector always prefers the acceleration of the economic growth of the same by means of the development of society and environment. The same thing has been identified for GWF.

Sustainable food production in George Weston Food

Sustainable food production is the method of the production of the food where the process and the systems that are used are none polluting. The process used renewable energy that is conserved and natural resources that are used are economically efficient (Dwivedi et al. 2017). This process is safe and for the workers and for the community and it is also abided by the needs of the future generation.

Maintenance of the sustainability by George Weston Food (GWF)

The company has also maintained this sustainability in their food production because they include the environmental targets as their part of the management in their business. At the end of 2013 GWF’s water consumption was lowered down to 12 % which was the baseline compared to the other companies (gwf.com, 2020). The GWF has set the goal of the reduction in their water consumption by 20% in per ton of their goods by 2020. GWF has taken the initiative of water recirculation and the cleaning practices by rainwater along with rainwater harvesting. GWF BY 2015 has decided to supply palm oil which has been certified sustainability and the RSPO trading scheme.

Environment Application

The steps of reducing the emission of the greenhouse gas by their production have been taken by various operations and by monitoring the performance. The company was able to achieve a depreciation of 18.9 % in the emission of greenhouse gas (gwf.com, 2020).

Supply chain management

The GWF has audited some programs which have been certified as the vendor assurance program where the suppliers are taught about the relevant regulatory and about the industries the maintenance of the consumer standard. The GWF has been able to achieve the responsibility chain by maintaining safe transportation and warehouse traffic management. The suppliers related to the company have to agree with the company’s responsible sourcing code of conduct for the maintenance of sustainability. GWF has captured the expectation of maintaining the labor standards ethically and to prevent bribery along with that the corruption related to the sourcing of the ingredients and materials. The suppliers of the animal products must be abided by local animal welfare law and also demonstrate the certification, regulation, standards and the traceability of their published standards.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) of GWF for sustainability maintenance

The social responsibilities taken by GWF are to give employment to more than 6000 people across the 58 sites of Australia where the company is located (gwf.com, 2020). GWF is responsible for the maintenance of quality, with robust supply chain, with supporting communities along with performing the environmental targets.

Benefits of the process in economic development

In the previous section, it has been identified that GWF has been using natural ingredients for its food production and has created trustable relationships with the local suppliers to keep the uninterrupted flow of natural resources as the raw material of its food production system. This is the main factor which has invoked economic development to the organisation. As per the official report, GWF has effectively enhanced its revenue, from 2,122 million dollars to 2,243 million dollars in the year 2018 (weston.ca, 2018). From this angle it can be analysed that sustainability has its impact over the economic upliftment of an organisation in both national and international level and GWF is the most relevant example to establish this idea.

The sustainability approach has also helped the organisation to minimise its production cost and the aspect of capital investment has helped to identify this. As per the data of the annual report, the capital investment of GWF has decreased from 241 million dollars to 215 million dollars and lastly to 212 million dollars for 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively (weston.ca, 2018). Henceforth it can be analysed that, the organisation is enhancing its revenue figure with the decrease of its capital investment. This is one of the most profitable strategies which have been formulated with the help of sustainability (Tait et al. 2016). Moreover, as per the sustainability report of the GWF, the company has been using the standards of the waste hierarchy which includes recovery, recycle and reuse (gwf, 2016). This has also provided economic growth to the company.

Impact of sustainable food production in environmental conservation

Environmental sustainability can be seen as the most important concern that the world is facing at present. As per the ideas of Dwivedi et al. (2017), global warming and climate change have taken the world by storm. Food production has a significant impact on the immediate environment and has been accredited with multiple negative impacts associated with this. Food production is responsible for eutrophication, acid rain and the depletion of biodiversity as well. This, in turn, contributes largely to the phenomenon of climate change. However, as per the ideas of Pickett et al. (2019), the major impact of food production is on the use of resources such as land and water, which is an essential aspect. Eliminating such negative implications can be facilitated using sustainable food production techniques.

The use of sustainable food production techniques has evolved over the years. However, as per Govindan (2018), a rise in the global population has led to an increase in the need for food production. As a consequence, all organizations associated with the production of food, have undertaken modern farming techniques, which has taken a considerable toll on the overall environment. Nevertheless, farming techniques have evolved over the years, which have led to a minimization in the use of chemical fertilizers. Instead, the practice has shifted towards the use of organic fertilizers, which has helped in conserving the quality and nutritional value of the land (Stevens et al. 2018). Moreover, it has also helped in reducing the levels of eutrophication caused as a result of fertilizer runoff. The use of resources has also been limited by making use of several modern techniques.

Impact of GWF’s measures in environmental sustainability

The organisation is making use of IoT in farming and techniques like drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. As per the ideas of Thyberg & Tonjes (2016), the modern irrigation techniques help in ensuring the conservation of water and at the main time reduces groundwater pollution. Furthermore, the organization makes use of organic fertilizers as well, which has helped it to enhance productivity and contain impacts on the environment considerably.

Impact over social development

Overall impact on social development

Sustainable food production is a very essential aspect as per the reports of the UN. In 2017, UN reports claim that one out of nine people across the world remains hungry for more than a day and one of three suffers from malnutrition (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). Given this scenario, there is a need to leverage food production, without any adverse impact on the environment and the natural resources. Therefore, sustainable food production is an essential aspect that is required to be ensured. Moreover, as per Ueasangkomsate & Santiteerakul (2016), sustainable food production also helps in ensuring lower pollution rates and preserves the nutritional value of the food products. This can largely help in ensuring healthy eating habits. This is of high social importance, as the spread of major diseases has become a common phenomenon across the world.

Use of sustainable food production has also helped in reducing the use of major non-renewable forms of resources, which can be utilized to meet the needs of the growing population. Apart from that, as Fontana et al. (2018) points out, conservation of water has become an essential need, as there is an acute scarcity of freshwater for drinking across many countries in the world. This can largely help the people of these countries to meet their water requirements and will also inhibit the growth and spread of waterborne diseases largely. Thus, sustainable food production has major social consequences, apart from the economic and environmental impacts.

Impact of GWFs activities on social development

GWF has put the best foot forward in the aspect of water conservation, as it has been able to cut down water conservation by 12% since 2013 (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). Moreover, the organization has set a target of reduction by 20% by the year 2020 (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). It also undertakes water recirculation and rainwater harvesting practices in this direction. Apart from these, GWF also undertakes energy efficiency practices and greenhouse gas elimination practices. The organization has been able to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 18.9% (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). All these efforts have helped the organization in ensuring greater social and environmental sustainability simultaneously.

Conclusion

Food production is a very important aspect that is required to be taken into consideration from the point of view of sustainability. Greater sustainability in food production is reported to have a wide range of economic, environmental and social implications. Taking a sustainable approach in food production not only allows greater productivity but also ensures a higher amount of nutritional value of the overall production. Moreover, it allows the reduction of the environmental impacts associated with the practice of food production. GWF has been able to meet all these criteria with their practices. Thus, GWF is practising Sustainable food production approach and has created a positive impact over the economic, social and environmental aspects of the operating market and the company.

Reference list

Crist, E., Mora, C., & Engelman, R. (2017). The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection. Science356(6335), 260-264. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: http://population.org.il/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Crist-et-al.-2017.-The-interaction-of-human-population-food-production-and-biodiversity-protection-_-Science.pdf

Dwivedi, S. L., Van Bueren, E. T. L., Ceccarelli, S., Grando, S., Upadhyaya, H. D., & Ortiz, R. (2017). Diversifying food systems in the pursuit of sustainable food production and healthy diets. Trends in plant science22(10), 842-856. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360138517301346

Fontana, A., De los Ríos Carmenado, I., Villanueva-Penedo, J., Ulloa-Salazar, J., & Santander-Peralta, D. (2018). Strategy for the Sustainability of a Food Production System for the Prosperity of Low-Income Populations in an Emerging Country: Twenty Years of Experience of the Peruvian Poultry Association. Sustainability10(11), 4035. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/11/4035/pdf

Govindan, K. (2018). Sustainable consumption and production in the food supply chain: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Production Economics195, 419-431. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Md_Washim_Akram/post/How_to_develop_the_conceptual_model_for_Sustainable_Supply_Chain/attachment/5ad727fc4cde260d15d97e14/AS%3A616724202278918%401524049916223/download/govindan2017.pdf

gwf.com, (2016), Environment & Sustainability Policy, Retrieved on 10 January 2020, from: http://www.gwf.com.au/static/pdf/Environment-Sustainability-Policy-Janurary-2018.pdf

gwf.com, (2020). Corporate Responsibility at GWF. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: http://www.gwf.com.au/our-passions/corporate-responsibility-at-gwf.html

gwf.com, 2019, Our Business, Retrieved on 10 January 2020, from: http://www.gwf.com.au/our-business/index.html

Lawrence, M. A., Baker, P. I., Pulker, C. E., & Pollard, C. M. (2019). Sustainable, resilient food systems for healthy diets: The transformation agenda. Public health nutrition22(16), 2916-2920. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/3D12E7C3679EE2BDC6EA97D1CE82C1E8/S1368980019003112a.pdf/div-class-title-sustainable-resilient-food-systems-for-healthy-diets-the-transformation-agenda-div.pdf

Pickett, J. A., Midega, C. A., Pittchar, J., & Khan, Z. R. (2019). Removing constraints to sustainable food production: new ways to exploit secondary metabolism from companion planting and GM. Pest management science75(9), 2346-2352. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/ps.5508

Rahimifard, S., Woolley, E., Webb, D. P., Garcia-Garcia, G., Stone, J., Jellil, A., … & Trollman, H. (2017, April). Forging new frontiers in sustainable food manufacturing. In International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (pp. 13-24). Springer, Cham. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3f02/4068d528fc1858123a9b28741b556aa56c88.pdf

Stevens, J. R., Newton, R. W., Tlusty, M., & Little, D. C. (2018). The rise of aquaculture by-products: Increasing food production, value, and sustainability through strategic utilisation. Marine Policy90, 115-124. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/26580/1/STORREversion-TheRiseofAquacultureBy-Products-Stevens_etal2018.pdf

Tait, P., Saunders, C., Guenther, M., & Rutherford, P. (2016). Emerging versus developed economy consumer willingness to pay for environmentally sustainable food production: A choice experiment approach comparing Indian, Chinese and United Kingdom lamb consumers. Journal of Cleaner Production124, 65-72. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: http://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10182/7332/Tait-et-al-2015-JCP-am.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Thyberg, K. L., & Tonjes, D. J. (2016). Drivers of food waste and their implications for sustainable policy development. Resources, Conservation and Recycling106, 110-123. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468584419300625

tiptop-foodservice.com, (2020). Sustainability. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://www.tiptop-foodservice.com.au/pages/sustainability

Ueasangkomsate, P., & Santiteerakul, S. (2016). A study of consumers’ attitudes and intention to buy organic foods for sustainability. Procedia Environmental Sciences34, 423-430. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878029616300597/pdf?md5=06cc74229a42b23944666197df5be17d&pid=1-s2.0-S1878029616300597-main.pdf&_valck=1

Vieira, L. C., Serrao-Neumann, S., Howes, M., & Mackey, B. (2018). Unpacking components of sustainable and resilient urban food systems. Journal of Cleaner Production200, 318-330. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: http://www.projechi.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/vieira2018.pdf

weston.ca, (2018), ANNUAL INFORMATION FORM 2018, Retrieved on 10 January 2020, from: http://www.weston.ca/en/pdf_en/gwl_2018aif_en.pdf


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A COMPARISON OF BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE

Introduction

The activities of business, society, as well as Government are quite fundamental in the globe, which is influential on various aspects of daily life. Businesses act for the satisfaction of the needs of society through the access of different services and products in exchange of monetary profit. Government is an individual structure that defines various rules and authorises application of such rules and policies. They also act for the betterment of the society and act as a regulatory body for observing the activities of business. Society can be said as a network constituting of human relations, which is composed of various methodologies, material things, ideas, and institutions. Hence, all the factors are mutually collaborated with one another, having great influence on one another through effective interactions. This essay deals with the three sectors, which are business sector, government sector, and society sector and a comparison of their relationship in the UK and Europe.

A COMPARISON OF BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE

Business Sector

The business sector in the US highlights a system where different businesses can freely operate in a free market structure. In this system, the government of the country is having compelling rationale that must be followed for its intervention in the business system. Moreover, it is seen that the business system of the country is having a powerful bias of individualism among them, where the business is not always associated with the community (Puksas et al. 2019). The motive of profit is more intense in the business, which is relevant for individuals along with the individual businesses. There has always been the existence of a monopoly market in the US, which has created individualism in this sector of the country. However, the business sector of Europe does not highlight the features of individualism among the various businesses. It has shown the presence of various short-term as well as long-term developments through the presence of large enterprises. From the view of the business sector of both the places, it has various relations with the government along with the society of the respective countries.

Government Sector

As the markets of the US are having a mixed economy, both the features of socialism and capitalism are present in the market. This is because some of the businesses in the country are controlled directly by the government. Others are capitalised, as they are individually owned in public sectors. However, with the application of some business rules and regulations of the country, the private ones have to follow such rules for maintaining their operations. This is done through their registration with the government agencies of the country and the businesses can be carried on after legal approval of operations and licenses (Lam, 2016). The government of the country acts for the betterment of its economic affairs through the influence of direct control. This is also associated with the economy of the US, which is connected with licensing requirements and restrictions such as country infrastructures, roads, postal deliveries, and so on (Holtzman et al. 2011). However, it does not control the voluntary movements of the princes in the market, which is entirely dependent on the rise and fall of supply and demand.

The markets along with the operations of Europe are operated from the end of the government of the country. The business of the country is supported by the government, as the authorities spend money of the public for the development of the business and other industries. Moreover, the operations of the government are based on the fulfilment of the public interest, so that the society and the economy of the country can be benefited as a whole (Roy, 2019). For this, the government of Europe is having the power for supporting the business through grants, tax reliefs, and other types of advantages. Hence, the government sector of Europe is quite different from that of the US.

Society Sector

In a developed country such as the US, the advocacy groups have critical roles in creating interdependence among the society and the businesses. The businesses are responsible for the society with CSR practices, which are inclusive of creating remedies for several issues such as customer issues, governance, human rights, and so on (Gabsa, 2017). Moreover, another social sector that is involved with the operations in the US is the media, which act as an important intermediary between the connections of the society, government, and businesses (Lin, 2019). However, in Europe, it is seen that the social sector is entirely associated with the businesses, as the business’s operations are inclusive of social responsibilities for the society of the country. Moreover, the government of the country intervenes in the market and the businesses, so that the betterment of the society can be prioritised.

Comparison of Relation

The relation of business-government-society can be compared with effect from the situations seen in the US and Europe. This comparison can highlight the key differences in such relations between the two mentioned countries. In both the mentioned countries, the government is seen acting for protecting the interests of the businesses along with the businesses of the society. There are still some differences as the regulations of Europe are based on some principles, which make the relation in Europe more advanced than that in the US. This is due to the evolution of Marxism principals in Europe along with renaissance that brought drastic changes in the relationship. However, it is required in comparing the key relationship aspects that create differences in both countries.

US

The role of the businesses of the US is quite vital for its society, which are entirely regulated by the government authorities. With the effects of advanced globalisation, the development of the relationship is evident in the country, accelerating its pace. As the business transactions are being made on an international level, it is quite required in looking over the connections the government of the country is having with the business and the society (Toepler, 2018). Though there has been presence of individualism among the businesses of the country, it is also required for them in adhering to appropriate social responsibilities, which can be regulated by the government of the US (Holtzman et al. 2011). This is also true for the betterment of the immediate community along with fulfilling their own business interests and profitability. In the US, it is quite evident that the government directly does not intervene in the activities of the business houses. The intervention of the government can be against the business or can also be in the support of the business, which is entirely dependent on meeting the interests of the society. However, sometimes this is relevant for the sake of the society, which is measured in terms of CSR practices, which can be evaluated with the help of several cases.

The relationship among the three factors can be explained with the help of the beef recall case in the country, which happened in 2008 (Holtzman et al. 2011). After a video of a slaughtering house was leaked regarding the workers of the plant forcibly transferring sick cows to the slaughter areas, this was taken over by the Humane Society of the country. This led to a huge recall of the products of the plant. However, the Department of Agriculture of the country removed all of its officers from the issue, as it did not have the authority of directly recalling the products of the accused plant (Holtzman et al. 2011). However, as per the regulations of this department, it does not allow sick cattle to slaughter them in the production process of beef as they may have chances of carrying pathogens. As there were loopholes in the regulation activities, the department banned using sick cattle in the food supply process. The case has a clear view that the regulatory system of the US is not appropriate at first, which, however, acted quite quickly addressed the issue was identified (Holtzman et al. 2011). At this stage, it can be concluded the entire actions were taken by the advocacy group of the country so that the problem can be brought under control through the treatment of animals. The open media of the US took active part in spreading the news within the society, for which rapid actions were taken by the government authorities of the country.

Europe

Considering the facts of BGS relationship In Europe can be seen different from the US and it has changed the overview of the democratic ideal. Due to emerging industrialisation in Europe, BGS relationship growth can be seen with rejecting the ideas of Social Dominance model, which was backed by the idea of Marxism (Traverso, 2017).Such ideas were opposite to industrial capitalism, which obstructed the idea of dominating society through specific class and consideration of business with the decision-making from one standard. Achievement of the socialist reformation and dominance theory lacked equal distribution, which could be gained through power and wealth distribution. 

Technology and innovation has been fuelling business proposition from an ancient era, which remains unchanged in the business development in the modern age. In the year 1450, the printing press changed the overview of social activity and reformed the business proposition through the enactment of the printed documentation process. Such changes can be seen through reshaping European culture and innovative changes in the industry-wide sectors, Renaissance in Europe has been the motivator, and projector of the innovation, which later enhanced business support and gave rise to various free-market ideas. Martin Luther’s challenge to the scriptural dogma presented the Protestant Reformation. Scientific revolutions in entire Europe started technology upgrades, which changed the ideas based on business propagation. The invention of the Steam Engine in 1700 and Waterwheel in 1800 s triggered an industrial revolution (Stearns, 2018).

Variations in the process changed the business customs and improved the group versus individual initiatives in different cases. Apart from that, acceptability of women in the organisation, ethical values, gratuities changed the authority challenges and time changes in the business setting. Cultural differences stated the business factors, which can be seen with implementation of the US fast food in France, which forced out the traditional French dishes. Wearing custom nametags in the business meeting can be seen as an unacceptable medium, which lacked maturity states the cultural differences in Business development in a different nation. Modern nation-state system emerged as an unplanned process with the contiguous extension of the languages and it was subsequently alternated with the language-based reformation in eastern and Western Europe. Entire European culture and languages seen with these territories formed colonial empires for attaining high prestige and the mixed idea of ethnicity, culture, language, and religion (Botrić & Božić, 2016).

Changes in the government environment can be seen in the European context also, which includes a reduction in the spending average, GDP growth, welfare of the business with broad aspects of functional strategies. Europe can be seen with an increase in the percentages compared to developing countries, which is due to the new initiatives taken by the government. Social welfare promotion with provision for different transfer payment to the patients stated compliance with the enactment of new functions and enlargement of the electorates. This expansion was done through the selection of the lower class citizens in the new process and regulation of the industries to strict rule against abuses. Government growth was seen with a change in the practical business scenario changing the notion of social and business growth with developed business constraints (Hamann, 2019). 

Conclusion

The relationship of business-government-society is seen quite different in the economy of the two concerned countries. In both of them, the government plays an important role in protecting the interests of both businesses and society. Moreover, the ideology of industrial capitalism was not constituted in the relationship for Europe. It forms a well balance of the business-government-society relationship in Europe, thus forming an advanced relationship and interconnections among them by benefitting all of them. This was not present in the economy of the US, which followed some populist movements, which did not have successful efforts in reforming the relation of business-government-society of the country. As a concluding remark, it can be said that the relationship of the three concerned factors in Europe can set a different example as compared to that in the US, due to the presence of advanced industrialised system and the practices of Marxism, and therefore, forms a better relationship structure than that in the US.


Reference List for BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS

Botrić, V., & Božić, L. (2016).Business-Government Relationship in European Post-Transition Countries: Do Innovators Get the Worse End of a Stick?. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences12(49), 5-21.

Gabsa, W. (2017).Business and Government Relations in Cameroon. In Business and Government Relations in Africa (pp. 291-313). Routledge.

Hamann, R. (2019). Dynamic de-responsibilization in business–government interactions. Organization Studies40(8), 1193-1215.

Holtzman, Y., Puerta, M., Lazarus, H., Wu, J., & Davidson, D. K. (2011). The business‐government‐society relationship: a comparison between China and the US. Journal of Management Development.

Lam, N. M. (2016). Business-government relationship in economic development. Asian Education and Development Studies.

Lin, P. (2019). Does the use of social media by US politicians negatively impact the relationship between the government and society?. What is Ratio?, 67.

Puksas, A., Gudelis, D., Raišienė, A. G., &Gudelienė, N. (2019). Business, government, society and science interest in co-production by relative evaluation using google trends. Management of Organizations: Systematic Research81(1), 55-71.

Roy, O. (2019). Business-Government Interaction: A Thematic Analysis. Economics-Innovation and economic research7(2), 7-17.

Stearns, P. N. (2018). The industrial revolution in world history. Abingdon: Routledge.

Toepler, S. (2018). Public philanthropic partnerships: The changing nature of government/foundation relationships in the US. International Journal of Public Administration41(8), 657-669.

Traverso, E. (2017). Left-wing melancholia: Marxism, history, and memory. Columbia University Press.


Essay on Business

A COMPARISON OF BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE

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Business Studies Essay – Topics for Term Paper

In this section, we suggest more than 100 topics, including some for each chapter. Most are suitable for students in an introductory course and require research outside the text. Some are more challenging than others, but most are suitable for either term paper topics or in-class presentations and debates by individuals or teams. We offer excellent Business Studies Essay Help.

Business Studies Essay Help

CHAPTER 1    THE STUDY OF BUSINESS, GOVERNMENT, AND SOCIETY

  • A Description and Analysis of the Business, Government, and Society Relationships of (Any Large Corporation)
  • Capitalism: Its Strengths and Weaknesses Assessed
  • The Stakeholder Idea: Its Strengths and Weaknesses Assessed

CHAPTER 2    THE DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT

  • The Changing Global Environment of Royal Dutch/Shell.
  • How the Natural Environment Has Been Changed by Human Activity Since the Industrial Revolution
  • How Postmaterialist Values Change the Business Environment
  • How Advertising Reflects Changing Social Values
  • Ten Events of the Last Decade that Most Changed the Business Environment

CHAPTER 3    BUSINESS POWER

  • How Economic Growth between 1860 and 1929 Changed American Society
  • A History of the Dow Jones Industrial Average
  • Economic Concentration in American Industry: Is It Too Great for the Public Interest?
  • The Life of J. P. Morgan and His Impact on American Industry and Society
  • The Life of John D. Rockefeller and the Rise of the Oil Industry
  • Theories of Economic Elites in the United States: An Evaluation

CHAPTER 4    CRITICS OF BUSINESS

  • The Life and Times of Huey Long (or Mary Lease) and His (Her) Populist Message
  • Nestlé’s Marketing of Infant Formula: A Case Study of Criticism and Corporate Response
  • The Story of the Anti-Apartheid Movement: Its Impact on American Corporations
  • The Marxist Critique of Capitalism
  • The Use of Social Responsibility Shareholder Proposals to Challenge Corporate Power
  • Ralph Nader’s Life and Views about Corporations
  • The Rise and Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations

CHAPTER 5    CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

  • A Description and Analysis of the Social Programs of (Any Large Corporation)
  • The Contrasting Views of Milton Friedman and Ralph Nader on Corporate Social Responsibility
  • The Rise of Civil Regulation as a Method for Advancing Global CSR
  • The Story of the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme
  • Are Socially Responsible Corporations More Profitable?

CHAPTER 6    IMPLEMENTING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

  • How (One Large Corporation) Implements Social Performance
  • The Tylenol Crisis and the Role of Johnson & Johnson’s Credo
  • An Assessment of Philanthrocapitalism
  • An Assessment of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
  • A Description and Evaluation of the Global Reporting Initiative
  • Is Cause-Related Marketing an Ethically Compromised Form of Philanthropy?

CHAPTER 7    BUSINESS ETHICS

  • Ethical Theory in Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics and Its Applicability to Modern Organizations
  • Nineteenth-Century Business Ethics as Described in Matthew Josephson’s The Robber Barons
  • Use of Fines to Punish Corporations for Wrongful Behavior
  • The Criminal Prosecution of Enron CEO Kenneth Lay
  • A Description and Assessment of Ethics Programs in Corporations
  • The Use of  Paper-and-Pencil Honesty Tests for Detecting Thieves
  • A Comparative Study and Assessment of Corporate Ethics Codes

CHAPTER 8    MAKING ETHICAL DECISIONS IN BUSINESS

  • Religious Ethics as Guidelines for Business Decisions
  • The Story of J. C. Penney: An Ethical Business Leader
  • Immanuel Kant or Níccolò Machiavelli: Whose Ethics are More Appropriate for Modern Business?
  • The Ford Motor Company and the Pinto Gas Tank: A Case Study in Corporate Ethics
  • A Study of Corrupt Payments by Chiquita Brands in Colombia

CHAPTER 9    BUSINESS IN POLITICS

  • The U.S. Constitution: A Document of Economic Determinism or Liberal Idealism?
  • Influence Tactics of Business Lobbies in Washington
  • Have Efforts to Regulate Corporate Campaign Contributions Been Successful?
  • The Rise of Corporate PACs and Their Impact in Federal Elections
  • The Federal Election Commission: Its History, Powers, and Importance
  • Resolved: Corporate Campaign Contributions Are Free Speech and Should Not Be Restricted

CHAPTER 10    REGULATING BUSINESS

  • The Historical Growth of Government Regulation of Business
  • Evolving Interpretation of the Commerce Clause in American Constitutional Law
  • The New Deal Era as a Turning Point in the Business-Government Relationship
  • The Rulemaking Process in Federal Regulatory Agencies
  • The History and Enforcement Patterns of the Environmental Protection Agency (or the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or the Federal Trade Commission)
  • The Federal Register as a Window on Federal Regulation of Business
  • Command-and-Control Regulation versus Market Incentive Regulation
  • Deregulation of the Airline (or Savings and Loan, Electric Power, or Telecommunications) Industry

CHAPTER 11    MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS

  • United States-Based Multinational Corporations in Foreign Countries: Are They Socially Responsible?
  • Codes of Conduct for Transnational Corporations: Sources, Content, Strengths, and Weaknesses
  • The United Nations Global Compact
  • Should the Alien Tort Claims Act Apply to Transnational Corporations?
  • Export of Tobacco Products to Third World Countries by U.S. Tobacco Companies

CHAPTER 12   GLOBALIZATION, TRADE, AND CORRUPTION

  • The History of Economic Globalization
  • The History of the European Union
  • The North American Free Trade Agreement: How Has It Worked?
  • Protectionist Trade Legislation: Pro and Con
  • The Impact of Globalization on Nation-State Sovereignty
  • The Impact of American Entertainment Products on Foreign Cultures
  • An Analysis of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Its Enforcement

CHAPTER 13    INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

  • Sustainable Development: Implications and Prospects
  • Should the United States Senate Ratify the Kyoto Protocol?
  • Should Drilling Be Allowed in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge?
  • An Assessment of the Superfund Law and Its Accomplishments
  • Should the Environmental Protection Agency Regulate Global Warming Gas Emissions?

CHAPTER 14    MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

  • The Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Regulation
  • The Use of Cap-and-Trade Schemes for Global Warming Gases
  • An Assessment of Green Taxes as a Method for Promoting Sustainable Manufacturing
  • The Precautionary Principle as a Guide for Business Decisions
  • The Greening of American Industry: How Leading Corporations Promote Sustainability

CHAPTER 15    CONSUMERISM

  • The History of Consumer Regulation in the United States
  • An Essay Comparing the Ideas of Henry David Thoreau with the Values of Modern Americans
  • The Story of Ralph Nader as a Consumer Advocate
  • The Global Spread of Consumerism
  • Using Product Liability Law to Hold Firearm Manufacturers Accountable for Gun Violence
  • Taxing Internet Purchases: Pro and Con
  • Is Tobacco Manufacture and Advertising Ethical?

CHAPTER 16    THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

  • Demographic Change in the Labor Force: Implications for Management
  • How Technology and Automation Affect Employment
  • A Comparative Study of Protections for Workers in America, Europe, and Japan
  • The Story of Secretary of Labor Francis Perkins during the New Deal Years
  • Offshoring: Its Causes and Its Significance

CHAPTER 17    CIVIL RIGHTS IN THE WORKPLACE

  • The History of Employment Discrimination Against the Chinese in California
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Affirmative Action in Corporations: Pro and Con
  • Strategies for Diversity Management in Corporations
  • Barriers to the Advance of Women in Management
  • Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
  • Racial Harassment in the Workplace

CHAPTER 19    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

  • The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002: Its Costs and Benefits
  • Governance Policies of American Corporations: A Comparative Study
  • Trends in Top Executive Compensation
  • Separating the Chairman of the Board and CEO Positions: Pro and Con
  • Director Compensation: A Comparative Study of (Any Four) Fortune 500 Corporations
  • Analysis of Three Social Responsibility Shareholder Resolutions in the (Most Recent) Proxy Season

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